Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints.

India and China have almost 40% of the world's TB cases. In India alone, 2.2 million new cases of TB were detected in 2011.

Modern anti-TB treatment cab virtually cure all patients if the full course of treatment is taken as prescribed for a minimum of 6 months. However, it is often discontinued because the patients typically feel much better before the treatment is completed. However, multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of TB occur, which are both hard to detect and treat.